A design can be anything, an electronic circuit or an association of individuals
A design consists of components
Each component itself consists of components
The shape and function of each component potentially affects the shape and function of every other
Refining a design consists of iteratively revisiting design elements to optimize shape and function
Design iteration cycles between top and bottom (overview and details)
After a component’s design is refined, associated component designs need to be re-optimized.
As components are optimized, the design becomes more compact and efficient.
Compact & efficient = powerful.